Japanese Knotweed Identification - The Complete Guide
Read through our comprehensive Japanese knotweed identification guide below. If you are still not sure, watch our Identification video, download our Quick Digital ID Guide, or Email us your photos and we'll confirm whether it's knotweed for FREE.
- Japanese knotweed is visible above ground between March and November
- Japanese knotweed can grow at a rate of 10cm a day in spring
- The most distinctive part of Japanese knotweed is the shield shape leaves
- Japanese knotweed dies back in winter, making it harder to spot.
Trust us to give you the right information:
- What does Japanese Knotweed Look Like?
- How do you Identify Japanese Knotweed?
- What does the Start of Japanese Knotweed Look Like?
- What does Japanese Knotweed Look Like in April?
- What does Japanese Knotweed Look Like in Summer?
- What does Knotweed Look Like in Autumn?
- How do you Identify Japanese Knotweed in Winter?
- Where does Japanese Knotweed Grow?
- When is the Best Time to Spot Japanese Knotweed?
- What Can Be Mistaken for Japanese Knotweed?
- What does Japanese Knotweed Look Like when it's Been Treated?
- What Japanese Knotweed Hybrids are There?
- Does Japanese Knotweed Have Pink Flowers?
- Does Japanese Knotweed Have Red Stems?
- What do the Flowers of Japanese Knotweed Look Like?
- What is the Difference Between Bindweed and Japanese Knotweed?
- What Does Japanese Knotweed Rhizome / root Look Like?
- How Deep Do Japanese Knotweed Roots Go?
- Does Japanese Knotweed Damage Property?
Other Useful GuidesJapanese Knotweed and Property Japanese Knotweed and the Law Japanese Knotweed and Insurance What is Japanese Knotweed?
Japanese knotweed (Reynoutria japonica syn. Fallopia japonica & Polygonum cuspidatum) is a non-native, invasive plant that was imported to the UK in Victorian times. Originally merited for its beauty, durability and regenerative powers, it is now widely recognised as a pest species that outcompetes native plants and causes damage in the built environment.
The images on the right show the most distinctive characteristics of the plant and will help you with Japanese knotweed identification throughout the year.
|Japanese knotweed shoots
Asparagus-like spears or small deep red shoots in spring. Tall green canes with purple speckles reaching up to 3m in summer, turning brown and brittle in winter.
|Japanese knotweed leaves
Bright green shield or shovel shaped leaves that form a zig-zag shape on the stem
|Japanese knotweed flowers
Clusters of creamy white flowers in late summer
|Japanese knotweed seeds
Small, heart shaped winged sterile seeds
|Japanese knotweed rhizome
Dark brown rhizome, easily snaps to reveal bright orange inside
The appearance of Japanese knotweed changes with the seasons, so it is important to note that when you are checking for Japanese knotweed, you should bear in mind the time of year. Japanese knotweed is most easily identified during the spring and summer months. Key traits of Japanese knotweed are;
- Red shoots emerge in spring that look like asparagus.
- Leaves which are shield or shovel-shaped.
- Stems that resemble bamboo canes with purple speckles.
- Small, cream-coloured flowers developing towards the end of summer.
In the autumn, the leaves will start to go yellow and wilt as winter approaches. The plant can grow to about two or three metres if left unattended. The stems will change to a darker brown before the plant becomes dormant in winter.
When mature Japanese knotweed plants start to grow, it can be quite alarming to watch. Thick, upright stems that look like asparagus pierce the ground and can grow 10cm in height per day, until they reach their full height at the end of spring. These stems, or canes, resemble bamboo and will usually grow to 1m or more in height before any leaves or side branches start to grow. Canes emerge in clumps from a main crown in the ground.
The start of Japanese knotweed where it is newly imported, disturbed or spreading out naturally from an existing area of establish knotweed look completely different. New shoots tend to be much smaller, and deep red in colour. They can also be dark green with deep red leaf edges. These plants are normally considerably smaller, and open into leaf much earlier.
Similarly, when knotweed starts to regrow from a failed or incomplete herbicide treatment the appearance can be significantly altered. We call this bonsai growth.
Thick asparagus shaped shoots appear from the base of woody crowns in spring
Shoots of Japanese knotweed growing through weaknesses in paving, quickly exacerbating the damage.
Growth of Japanese knotweed on a river bank, where large leaves quickly outcompete smaller native species.
It can be difficult to recognise Japanese knotweed in the spring months of Februaray, March and April as this is when the plant first starts to grow. If you have an existing infestation that has been dormant over the winter, you'll might be able to spot the brown, bamboo-like stems sticking out of the ground.
Between late February and April, new Japanese knotweed appears as asparagus-like shoots. These start off as reddish buds that transform into shoots and can grow at a rate of a couple of centimetres a day. They quickly outgrow surrounding plants. On warm April days, more mature plants can grow at a rate of 10cm a day.
As the fleshy shoots get taller, they sprout bright lime green leaves with purplish or pink veins.
Asparagus like shoots emerge in March and April and grow quickly towards the sun.
Some knotweed shoots emerge with red stems and foliage, usually following cutting or herbicide treatment.
Leaves gradually unfurl into their characteristic lime green shield shapes, from alternate stems.
The summer months of June, July and August is when Japanese knotweed is in full growth. Mature plants normally reach their full height of 2 - 2.5m by the end of May, with leaves unfurled into their distinct shied shape, and vivid lime green in colour. Canes emerge from distinct crowns in the ground, and are tall with a silvery sheen and purple/pink speckles. In late July, leaves start to become richer and darker green in colour and clusters of creamy white flowers appear. The vast numbers of flowers are very attractive to bees.
Smaller, immature areas of knotweed are unlikely to reach more than 1m in height, but they do exhibit the same changes in leaf colour and can be easily identified by their distinctive zig-zag stem formation and shield shaped leaves. Young plants may not flower.
Key Summer Identification:
- Tall stems, reaching 2.5m in height, green with purple speckles.
- Vivid green shield shaped leaves, on alternate stems
- Clusters of small creamy white flowers
Distinctive shield-shape leaves are visible from April to October.
Knotweed can grow up to 10cm a day, gradually unfurling leaves in a zig-zag formation.
Mature stands of knotweed can reach up to 3m in the height of summer.
Japanese knotweed is a perennial plant, which means it dies right back in Autumn, and re-emerges the following spring. As the weather gets cooler and light levels drop in October and November, Japanese knotweed leaves start to turn yellow and then eventually brown, before dropping to the ground just as a deciduous tree does. The stems (canes) of the plant also lose their fleshy green appearance, gradually turning brown and brittle. After the first few frosts, Japanese knotweed will have completely died back, leaving, brown brittle canes behind.
Key Autumn Identification:
- Yellowing leaves with brown spots
- Clusters of old flowers, sometimes with heart shaped seed pods visible
- Stems begin to change from green to a rich red/brown.
The distinctive shield shaped leaves begin to turn yellow, then brown before dropping to the ground.
Knotweed leaves gradually change form green to yellow as light levels and temperatures drop.
Knotweed canes begin to turn brown and brittle as all of the energy is drawn back down into the root system
In spring and summer months, Japanese knotweed is relatively easy to identify once you know what the characteristics are. Surveyors are expected to identify knotweed throughout all the seasons, even though in winter this problem weed becomes trickier to spot. Things to look out for are;
- Brown, brittle canes left standing
- Distinctive crowns in the ground
- Scorched areas of grass and bare patches of earth
- Smaller plants with distinctive zig zag stem distribution
A growing number of surveyors are being sued for professional negligence as a result of missing Japanese knotweed during surveys. We're here to help make sure knotweed can be correctly identified whatever the time of year.
If you are unsure, we offer a free Japanese knotweed identification service. Email your photos to firstname.lastname@example.org and we'll tell you if Japanese knotweed is present.
Tall, brown, brittle canes are often left standing, particularly in early winter.
Canes still exhibit the zig-zag stem formation and look red-brown in colour
Later into winter, canes will often fall down or be cleared by humans, making identification much harder.
Japanese knotweed will grow pretty much anywhere. It is an amazingly resilient plant, that can tolerate extremes in temperature, moisture and pH. The fast-growing habit of Japanese knotweed, combined with its energy packed rhizome system, gives it a competitive advantage over many other plants, allowing it to establish growth in places where others would stand no chance. Over the last 25 years, we have identified Japanese knotweed growing in all sorts of places, including on beaches, out of rivers beds, from cracks in cliffs and even out of chimneys!
Since its introduction in the 1840s, Japanese knotweed has spread to every corner of the UK. Some areas are affected more than others, which is why we launched Exposed™, the Japanese knotweed Heatmap to record and track the spread of the species over time.
Japanese knotweed is most commonly found in the following places:
- Residential gardens
- Roadside verges
- Railway embankments
Japanese knotweed can survive where most plants struggle, even out of cracks in rocks with little or no soil to support the root system.
Japanese knotweed will exploit every gap it can find, often growing out of walls.
Japanese knotweed is a common site along roads, particularly in areas where it is most prevalent such as South Wales.
Japanese knotweed is most easily spotted in late spring and summer. There are not many other species that emerge from the ground in spring at such an impressive rate, meaning Japanese knotweed shoots often stick out like a sore thumb compared to most slower growing native and ornamental plants.
Japanese knotweed is at its most distinct in high summer, where the tall attractive canes draw your eye. The nature of Japanese knotweed means it spreads into large stands, outcompeting all other plants. When you know that Japanese knotweed is present, you can often identify it though aerial and satellite imagery!
In winter and early spring, Japanese knotweed is at its least obvious, and can be easily overlooked. That is where our Japanese knotweed Detection Dogs come into their own, as they are able to detect the smell of the dormant rhizome in the ground.
Large stands of knotweed are easy to spot in the height of summer, standing over 2.5 meters tall.
In early spring, Japanese knotweed grows rapidly, towering over native species that grow at a much slower rate.
By mid-May, established stands of Japanese knotweed are hard to miss, having reached over 1.5m tall
Plants that people often mistake for Japanese knotweed include
- Himalayan balsam,
- Russian vine,
- Broadleaf dock,
- Lilac and other woody shrubs like Dogwood.
Japanese knotweed can cause a great deal of damage to properties. Identifying the plant is not always simple and it's easy to get confused.
Bindweed is not self supporting like knotweed, and needs to climb up structures and other plants.
Russian Vine is a close relative of Japanese knotweed, equally invasive and should be controlled to prevent it taking over your garden.
Himalayan Balsam is most commonly seen along rivers, where it forms dense colonies. Its apprearance is quite different from knotweed.
It can take many years before Japanese knotweed gives up the fight to grow when you are tackling it with herbicide treatment alone. Regrowth from glyphosate-based treatments often takes the form of “bonsai” growth.
Completely different in appearance to a healthy plant, bonsai knotweed is characterised by tiny red or green pointy leaves, and straggly deformed stems. It often grows in small clumps, low to the ground, and would be easy to overlook as Japanese knotweed.
Bonsai knotweed often isn't large enough to take in the required volume of herbicide to kill the rhizome beneath the ground, therefore the best course of treatment is to excavate it to ensure there is no trace of viable rhizome remaining in the ground. To find out more about excavation please visit our Resi Dig-Out™ page.
Bonsai regrowth occurs as a result of herbicide treatment with Roundup, and other glyphosate based products.
Herbicide treatment often leaves behind ugly brown scarred landscapes that take time to recover.
Deformed regrowth and brown canes are sure signs of previous attempts of treatment.
There are lots of plants in the knotweed family, many look similar to Japanese knotweed, but are much less invasive and therefore perfectly OK to grow. There are however some varieties, including hybrids of Japanese knotweed that are also listed under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981, which should be treated in the same way as Japanese knotweed. These are:
- Giant knotweed (Fallopia Sachalinensis)
- Bohemian knotweed (Fallopia x Bohemica syn. Reynoutria x Bohemica)
- Dwarf knotweed (Reynoutria Japonica var. Compacta)
Our in-depth guide to Japanese knotweed explains the differences between the species along with how to identify them.
Giant knotweed is the big brother of Japanese knotweed, and can grow to be over 4m tall in a single season.
Dwarf knotweed is around half the size of the regular variety, but still packs a punch below the surface.
Bohemica is a hybrid of giant and regular knotweed, and varies in appearance, usually falling somewhere between the two in size.
Some species such as dwarf Japanese knotweed can have pink flowers but these are less invasive and their incidence in the UK is lower. The Japanese knotweed we find in our gardens and on commercial properties have small clusters of flowers that are creamy white.
They generally appear towards the end of the summer and into autumn, just before the plant becomes dormant and 'closes down' for the winter.
Making the right identification when it comes to Japanese knotweed is difficult if you don't have experience of it. If you do find Japanese knotweed on your property, it's important to get a professional team in to handle its removal.
They will be able to use a combination of digging and chemical control to ensure the plant doesn't return or do any damage to your property.
Japanese knotweed has white flowers in dense clusters that are adored by bees.
Lesser knotweed is in the same family as Japanese knotweed, but is much smaller, with pink bell shaped flowers.
Red bistort is another plant we are commonly asked about, although it has no real resemblance to knotweed, its familiy ties leave people second guessing!
At certain stages of its lifecycle, Japanese knotweed will have red or reddish-brown stems that look similar to bamboo. Even when it is first growing and shoots are just emerging, you will be able to see a red/purple tinge in the asparagus-like tips.
As the spring fades and we move into summer, the stems of the Japanese knotweed will become thicker and start to resemble bamboo. They usually turn pale green and develop little pink/purple speckles on the surface of the stem, loosing their red characteristics.
As the plant moves into autumn, you'll see the leaves begin to yellow. The stems will switch from a reddish-brown to a deeper hue of brown as it prepares for the dormancy of winter.
Red stems of knotweed emerging in spring which can often also be seen after knotweed roots are disturbed.
Mature knotweed canes loose their red tint over and take on a greener colour with speckles - one of the characteristics that made it such a desirable plant in the 1800s.
Knotweed dies back in winter, leaving dark brown brittle, hollow canes behind that are easy to crush, unlike bamboo.
Japanese knotweed flowers are fairly distinctive. They form in creamy clusters and are small in size. They normally start to appear during the late summer and early autumn. Identifying the flowers is important but it usually means that the plant has established itself quite strongly and may be difficult to remove.
Other, less prevalent types such as dwarf Japanese knotweed have pinkish leaves but these are not so invasive in the UK. Himalayan knotweed can have white or pale pink flowers.
Most people have trouble identifying whether they have Japanese knotweed at all. That's why it's a good idea to have it checked by a specialist.
Ideally, you want to catch the plant in its early development in the spring or the beginning of summer. Waiting too long, particularly until the Japanese knotweed flowers appear in late summer, can mean that you are more prone to property damage.
Budding Japanese knotweed flowers
Japanese knotweed lowers and heart shaped seeds pods
Japanese knotweed flowers form dense clusters that stick out from the plants and hang down.
Bindweed and Japanese knotweed can often be mistaken for each other. Both have large, heart-shaped leaves and can grow quickly, getting out control in a short time. The main difference between the two, however, is that bindweed is a climbing plant and will tend to wrap around garden structures or grow up the wall.
Japanese knotweed is a freestanding plant and doesn't need any support. Both plants start to take hold in the springtime and can appear even more similar at this stage, thought the shoots for Japanese knotweed have a red/purple colour and resemble asparagus tips.
The other way to differentiate the two is the flowers. Bindweed has largish white or pink trumpet flowers while knotweed has clusters of small creamy flowers. Knotweed flowers appear towards the end of summer and autumn compared to late spring-early summer for bindweed.
Both plants can be a nuisance but Japanese knotweed is by far the most invasive and likely to cause damage to property.
Bindweed is a climbing plant that relies on the support of a structure to grow.
Bindweed has large trumpet flowers that emerge in early summer.
Knotweed is self supporting , standing tall like bamboo.
Japanese knotweed rhizome is one of the most distinctive parts of the plant. The rhizome system is made up of long lengths of dark brown, knobbly material, that, when snapped in two, reveals a bright orange centre. The snap of the rhizome is often associated with that of a carrot. The diameter of rhizome can vary from a shoelace to a forearm, and it has an incredible ability to mould itself to the shape of any obstacle in its path. The rhizomes spread laterally out from the main plant crown, often up to 2 metres is all directions. New shoots emerge from the rhizome system each year, establishing new satellite crowns over time.
The dark brown rhizome has an incredible ability to regenerate, with some lab samples as small as 0.06g establishing new plants! Of course, in nature, fragments that small are unlikely to survive, but Japanese knotweed will readily grow new plants from fragments of around 1-2cm in size. This ability to regenerate is what has enabled the plant to spread so far across the UK, and in turn, what makes it so difficult to get rid of!
The cylindrical, dark brown rhizome reveals a bright orange centre when snapped in two.
Japanese knotweed rhizome grows prolifically beneath the surface, with masses of rhizome forming in mature stands.
The rhizome is easily recognisable to the expert eye, enabling targeted separation via screening.
The rhizomes explore every avenue in search of new places to grow, shown here growing into an old stone barn wall.
Japanese knotweed spreads from its highly regenerative underground rhizome system. Whilst the visible extent of above ground growth is a useful indicator it does not reflect the full magnitude of the rhizome system. The roots of Japanese knotweed are a huge problem and can grow as deep as 3 metres (although most commonly 1.5-2m) which is what makes it so hard to get rid of.
Above the ground, the plant is equally fast-growing and is quickly able to reach heights of three or four metres. A mature, established plant will grow as much as 10cm in height per day and can quickly get out of control. While the above-ground infestation is fairly easy to get rid of, it's the roots underground that cause the biggest problem.
They can grow too deep for most normal gardening and digging practices which is why it's important to instruct a specialist to deal with the problem. Even one rhizome remaining in the ground means that the plant will start to grow again and left, will reestablish itself.
Growing between walls
Knotweed rhizome in the ground
Regrows from tiny fragments
What does Japanese Knotweed Look Like? How do you Identify Japanese Knotweed? What does the Start of Japanese Knotweed Look Like? What does Japanese Knotweed Look Like in April? What does Japanese Knotweed Look Like in Summer? What does Knotweed Look Like in Autumn? How do you Identify Japanese Knotweed in Winter? Where does Japanese Knotweed Grow? When is the Best Time to Spot Japanese Knotweed? What Can Be Mistaken for Japanese Knotweed? What does Japanese Knotweed Look Like when it's Been Treated? What Japanese Knotweed Hybrids are There? Does Japanese Knotweed Have Pink Flowers? Does Japanese Knotweed Have Red Stems? What do the Flowers of Japanese Knotweed Look Like? What is the Difference Between Bindweed and Japanese Knotweed? What Does Japanese Knotweed Rhizome / root Look Like? How Deep Do Japanese Knotweed Roots Go? Does Japanese Knotweed Damage Property?
Think you know it all?